Factory in Vietnam

The manufacturing industry in Vietnam has experienced significant growth in recent years, making it an attractive destination for investors looking to establish or expand their presence in Southeast Asia. However, in the dynamic business environment of Vietnam, there may come a time when a company considers the transfer of its manufacturing factory for various reasons. This legal guide explores the intricate process of transferring a manufacturing factory in Vietnam and the crucial aspects that need to be considered to ensure a smooth transition. 

Understanding Factory Transfer

Factory transfer, in the context of Vietnam, refers to the process of changing ownership or control of a manufacturing facility from one entity to another. It can involve the transfer of shares or assets, and it may be driven by strategic, financial, or operational considerations. 

Reasons for Factory Transfer

Companies may decide to transfer a manufacturing factory in Vietnam for several reasons, including market expansion, mergers and acquisitions, financial restructuring, or the need to optimize operational efficiency. 

Benefits of Factory Transfer

The benefits of factory transfer can include cost savings, access to new markets, improved resource allocation, and increased competitiveness. However, achieving these benefits requires meticulous planning and adherence to legal guidelines. 

Legal Framework in Vietnam

Vietnam’s legal system is a mix of civil law and socialist principles. It is essential to understand the legal framework governing factory transfers in Vietnam to navigate the process successfully.

Specific Laws Governing Factory Transfer

Investment Law: The Investment Law of Vietnam regulates foreign and domestic investments, including factory transfers, by outlining the rights and obligations of investors. 

Land Law: Land is a valuable asset in Vietnam, and the Land Law governs land use, lease, and ownership rights. It plays a pivotal role in factory transfers. 

Labor Law: Labor regulations in Vietnam protect the rights of employees and define the obligations of employers during a factory transfer. 

Environmental Regulations: Transferring a factory may have environmental implications. It is essential to understand and comply with environmental regulations. 

Role of Government Agencies

Government agencies, such as the Department of Planning and Investment, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, and the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids, and Social Affairs, play significant roles in approving and overseeing factory transfers. 

Due Diligence

Preparing for Factory Transfer

Financial Analysis: Conduct a thorough financial analysis to assess the financial health of the manufacturing facility and its assets. 

Compliance Check: Review the factory’s compliance with local laws and regulations, including tax compliance. 

Asset Evaluation: Determine the value of assets to be transferred, considering depreciation and market value. 

Identifying Potential Risks

Contractual Obligations: Analyze existing contracts and agreements to identify any obligations that may affect the factory transfer. 

Employee Contracts: Review employment contracts to ensure that employee rights and benefits are respected throughout the transfer process. 

Environmental Liabilities: Assess potential environmental liabilities and develop strategies to mitigate them. 

Transferring Ownership

Share Transfer vs. Asset Transfer

Decide whether the transfer will involve the sale of shares or the transfer of specific assets. Each approach has its legal implications and tax considerations.

Drafting Legal Documents

Sales and Purchase Agreement: Prepare a comprehensive agreement outlining the terms and conditions of the transfer. 

Transfer Agreement: Detail the transfer process, responsibilities, and timelines in a legally binding document. 

Land Lease Agreement: If applicable, ensure proper documentation of land lease agreements. 

Registration and Approval

Complete the necessary registration and obtain approvals from relevant government authorities to formalize the transfer. 

Handling Labor Issues

Employee Rights and Benefits

Respect the rights and benefits of employees, ensuring they are not adversely affected by the transfer. 

Transfer of Employees

Determine the fate of existing employees, whether they will be retained, transferred, or provided with appropriate severance packages. 

Ensuring Compliance with Labor Laws

Adhere to labor laws and regulations throughout the transfer process, including notifying employees and labor unions as required by law. 

Environmental Compliance

Environmental Impact Assessment

Conduct an environmental impact assessment to identify and address any environmental risks associated with the factory transfer. 

Handling Contaminated Sites

If the factory has contaminated sites, take appropriate actions to clean up and comply with environmental regulations.

Obtaining Necessary Permits

Secure any permits or approvals required for the transfer, especially if the factory operates in a regulated industry.

Tax Implications

Taxation on Asset Transfer

Understand the tax implications of transferring assets, including capital gains tax and value-added tax (VAT).

Capital Gains Tax

Determine the applicability and rate of capital gains tax on the transfer of factory assets. 

Value Added Tax (VAT) Considerations

Consider the VAT implications, especially if the factory transfer involves the sale of goods or services. 

Land Use and Property Rights

Land Lease and Ownership

Verify land lease agreements and property ownership rights to ensure a smooth transition. 

Land Use Planning and Zoning

Check land use planning and zoning regulations to confirm that the factory’s intended use aligns with local zoning requirements. 

Intellectual Property and Contracts

Intellectual Property Rights

Protect intellectual property rights during the transfer process and update ownership records as necessary. 

Reviewing Existing Contracts

Review and assess the impact of existing contracts, including supplier agreements and customer contracts. 

Renegotiating Agreements

Consider renegotiating contracts with suppliers and customers to reflect the new ownership structure and terms. 

Regulatory Compliance

Adhering to Industry-Specific Regulations

If the factory operates in a specific industry, ensure compliance with industry-specific regulations. 

Compliance with Safety Standards

Ensure the factory complies with safety standards and regulations to protect both employees and the environment.

Financial Implications

Budgeting for Transfer Costs

Prepare a detailed budget that accounts for all costs associated with the factory transfer, including legal fees, taxes, and operational adjustments. 

Financing Options

Explore financing options to cover the costs of the transfer, such as loans or equity investments. 

Asset Valuation

Seek professional valuation services to determine the fair market value of assets involved in the transfer. 

Dispute Resolution

Mediation and Arbitration

Include dispute resolution mechanisms in the transfer agreements to resolve potential conflicts through mediation or arbitration. 

Litigation as a Last Resort

Consider litigation as a last resort if disputes cannot be resolved through alternative methods. 

Case Studies

Real-Life Examples of Successful Factory Transfers

Examine case studies of companies that have successfully transferred manufacturing factories in Vietnam to gain insights and best practices. 

Common Challenges and How to Overcome Them

Identify common challenges faced during factory transfers and strategies to overcome them. 


Recapitulate the key points discussed in the legal guide to emphasize their importance in the factory transfer process. 

Importance of Legal Guidance in Factory Transfer

Highlight the significance of seeking professional legal guidance and assistance when transferring a manufacturing factory in Vietnam. 

Seeking Professional Assistance

Encourage readers to seek legal counsel and professional assistance to navigate the complex process of factory transfer in Vietnam successfully.

In conclusion, transferring a manufacturing factory in Vietnam requires a deep understanding of the legal framework, meticulous planning, and adherence to various regulations. This comprehensive legal guide provides valuable insights and guidelines to help businesses execute a successful factory transfer while mitigating risks and ensuring compliance with Vietnamese laws.