4 minutes

Malaysia Corporate Governance for Foreigners

Corporate governance encompasses the process and framework utilized to guide and oversee a company’s business and operations, aiming to foster business prosperity and corporate accountability. The ultimate goal is to achieve long-term shareholder value while taking into consideration the interests of other stakeholders.

Within corporate governance, a set of control mechanisms form a framework that aids the company in attaining its objectives while preventing undesirable conflicts. Key pillars like ethical behavior, accountability, transparency, and sustainability play a crucial role in governing companies and safeguarding investors’ capital. Companies that embrace these principles are more likely to generate long-term value compared to those lacking in any of these aspects.

Effective corporate governance involves determining the distribution of rights and responsibilities among various participants in the company. It also establishes rules and procedures for decision-making, internal control, and risk management. While corporate governance prioritizes shareholder interests, it necessitates a balance with the needs of other stakeholders, including employees, customers, suppliers, society, and the communities in which the companies operate.

Regulatory Framework

The regulatory framework for corporate governance in Malaysia is primarily governed by the Companies Act 2016. This comprehensive legislation sets out the rules and regulations that companies, both local and foreign-owned, must adhere to. It establishes the framework for corporate governance practices, including the responsibilities of company directors, shareholders, company secretary, and auditors. Foreign investors should familiarize themselves with the Companies Act 2016 to ensure compliance with Malaysian corporate governance requirements.  

Corporate Governance Best Practices 

While adhering to the regulatory framework is essential, foreign investors should also consider adopting best practices in corporate governance to enhance their company’s reputation and long-term sustainability in the Malaysian market: 

1. Transparency and Disclosure

Transparency is a fundamental principle of corporate governance. Foreign-owned companies should maintain a high level of transparency by regularly disclosing financial information, corporate policies, and any potential conflicts of interest. Timely and accurate reporting not only builds trust with stakeholders but also ensures compliance with Malaysian regulations. 

2. Risk Management  

Managing risks effectively is essential for the success of any business. Foreign investors should implement robust risk management strategies, including risk assessment, mitigation, and contingency planning. Understanding the local business environment and regulatory landscape is crucial for identifying and addressing potential risks specific to Malaysia. 

3. Code of Ethics 

The objective of the Code of Ethics as issued by the Companies Commission of Malaysia (SSM) is to primarily enhance the standard of corporate governance and corporate behaviors of directors and company secretaries with the view of achieving the following:  

  • to establish standards of ethical conduct for directors based on acceptable beliefs and values one upholds;  
  • to instill professionalism among company secretaries within the tenets of morality, efficiency, and administrative effectiveness; and  
  • to uphold the spirit of social responsibility and accountability in line with legislation, regulations, and guidelines governing a company. 

4. Whistle Blowing

The essence of ensuring that a company adheres to sound corporate governance practices, as evident in various statutes and guidelines, primarily rests with the directors. Hence, it is crucial for directors to establish the right atmosphere within their companies by offering insightful leadership and advocating for both good governance and ethical practices. 

The Board of a Company should also encourage employees to report genuine concerns in relation to a breach of any legal obligation within the company, including any negligence, criminal activity, breach of contract, breach of law, miscarriage of justice, danger to health and safety or to the environment and the cover-up of any of these in the workplace i.e. whistleblowing.  

The Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG) 

Why CARE?  

  • The Comprehend, Apply, and Report (CARE) framework encourages companies to transparently articulate the cognitive processes involved in implementing effective corporate governance. This includes offering fair and meaningful explanations of how the company has applied these practices and internalizing the spirit and intention behind the Principles and Practices, along with their intended outcomes. 
  • CARE strives to enhance mutual trust between companies and stakeholders by advocating for transparent and meaningful disclosures. Stakeholders rely on these disclosures for effective engagement with the company. The framework also fosters a culture of openness and mutual respect, benefiting both the company and its stakeholders. The substantial implementation of practices is essential to achieve the intended outcomes of establishing and supporting a robust corporate governance culture throughout the company. 
  • CARE is instrumental in generating increased interest in best practices for corporate governance, facilitating assessments, and sparking conversations on the subject. These collective outcomes contribute to elevating the overall standard of the market’s corporate governance culture. It is essential for companies to provide fair and meaningful disclosure regarding their corporate governance practices. 

The structure of the MCCG Process:

The MCCG is based on three key principles of good corporate governance, which are:-  

Principle A: Board Leadership and Effectiveness 

Principle B: Effective Audit and Risk Management 

Principle C: Integrity in Corporate Reporting and Meaningful Relationship with Stakeholders 

Challenges and Considerations for Foreign Investors ion 

While Malaysia offers numerous opportunities for foreign investors, there are specific challenges and considerations that should not be overlooked.  

a) Cultural Differences 

Navigating cultural nuances is crucial when conducting business in Malaysia. Understanding and respecting local customs, traditions, and business etiquette can facilitate smoother interactions with local partners, employees, and customers. 

b) Compliance with Anti-Corruption Laws 

Malaysia has stringent anti-corruption laws, and foreign investors must adhere to these regulations. Implementing anti-corruption measures and conducting due diligence on business associates can help mitigate legal risks. 

c) Legal and Taxation Matters 

Foreign investors should seek legal counsel to ensure compliance with Malaysian laws and taxation requirements. Understanding the tax regime, including incentives for foreign investors, is essential to optimize financial performance. 


Corporate governance is a vital aspect of foreign investment in Malaysia. By adhering to the regulatory framework, adopting best practices, and considering the unique challenges of the Malaysian market, foreign investors can establish a strong and sustainable presence in this dynamic Southeast Asian nation. Embracing transparency, responsible management, and cultural awareness will contribute to successful and ethical business operations in Malaysia